The issue was caused by a conflict with Triple Whale (TW) js script. A few days ago, TW deployed a change to the Triple Pixel script, which was added to the head section of the theme. When the script is present in the theme or the TW app embed block is activated, all product card images cannot be loaded.
At the moment, we don't know what's changed and there is no reply from this company at all. We're still looking for a fix to reload the images. At the moment, we can only exclude the script from our custom product template manually. It's a temporary workaround to restore the bundle pages.
All stores that installed the TW script are affected. In the meantime, support may be delayed due to the widespread issue.
The issue has been fixed. We have deployed a patch to all stores. It's a known issue between Triple Whale and the framework we use - Vue.